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March, 2024 ||  Volume  28  No.02

Volume 28(2) (2024),2-6

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Modification of radiogenic heat production equation due to radioactive disequilibrium in rock samples from Gamma-Ray spectrometry

Olusegun O. Alabi1*, Samuel O. Sedara2, Deborah T. Ajah1 and Iwa A. Akanni1

Physics Department, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
Physics and Electronics Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria


Accurate Radioactive Heat Production (RHP) estimation is essential for determining geothermal potential and exploration. However, a mass defect due to Uranium Series Decay (USD) is a serious problem that has yet to be considered by previous RHP models in computing accurate RHP. The RHP is a petro-physical property that quantifies the heat generated by the decay of radioactive isotopes within rocks. However, there is a mass defect in the process due to series disequilibrium in U decay called Uranium Series Decay (USD) that affects the accurate estimation of the RHP, which was not considered by the two previous RHP models, established by Birch and Rybach in 1954 and 1976 respectively. This work aims to determine the performance level of the previous RHP models and consider the effect of USD on establishing an improved new RHP model with a better performance level for accurate estimation of RHP. A revised data from gamma-ray spectrometry was used to compute the Beta and Alpha energies (????? ) of decay schemes, mass defect (???) of radioelements, total absorbed energy (????) per atom, numerical constants (?? ) and converted to the accepted RHP unit (?Wm-3) for each radionuclide. The modified RHP model (A3) was evaluated and validated using error metrics like the Sum of Squared Error (SSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Coefficient of Determination (R2), and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and radiometric data from seven different regions of Nigeria (Southwest- SW, Southeast-SE, outhsouth-SS, Northwest-NW, Northeast-NE, Northcentral-NC) and India. The performance of the improved model (A3) was compared with Birch’s (A1) and Rybach’s (A2) RHP models. The A3 RHP model obtained was ???(????3) = ?(0.103?? + 0.029??? + 0.061??), where ??, ??? ??? ?? are the concentration of ?, ?? ??? ? in part per million (ppm) and ? is the density of the rock sample(????3). It was observed that the A1, A2, and A3 models have 47.8, 45.2, and 54.6 percent performance levels, respectively, which indicates that the A3 model has better performance value than the A1 and A2 models. A3 also returned a lower measure of errors in SSE, MAE, and RMSE than the A1 and A2 models in all the regions considered and this showed that the A3 model performed better in the metrics analysis for all the regions. The performance level of the existing models, used to estimate RHP by researchers in the geosciences was determined and a more accurate model with better performance was obtained by considering mass defect due to Uranium Series Decay (USD) in the RHP estimation using data from Nigeria and outside Nigeria.


Comparison of characteristics associated with super cyclonic storm ‘Amphan’ using numerical model WRF-ARW analysis and ERA5 reanalysis

Arun Kumar, Sushil Kumar*, Nagendra Kumar, Nitin Lohan and R. Bhatla

Department of Mathematics, M.M.H. College, Ghaziabad 201001, India.
Department of Applied Mathematics, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida 201312, India.
Department of Geophysics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.


The numerical simulation is performed to study the super cyclonic storm (SuCS) ‘Amphan’ by using the advanced research weather research and forecasting (WRF-ARW) model with 9 km resolution and in single domain while running WRF Pre Processing System (WPS) over the Bay of Bengal (BoB). The super cyclonic storm (SuCS) ‘Amphan’ originated over south Andaman Sea, which touched southeast BoB on 13th May 2020. The super cyclonic storm (SuCS) ‘Amphan’ underwent rapid intensification into a very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) on 17th May 2020 and subsequently converted into extremely severe cyclonic storm (ESCS) on 18th May 2020 and finally into a super cyclonic storm (SuCS) around 1200 UTC of 18th May 2020 till next 24 hours, before weakening into ESCS and laid down as a low-pressure region over north Bangladesh and neighbourhood around midnight of 21st May 2020. In this study, high resolution advanced research weather research and forecasting (WRF-ARW v4.1.2) with the combination of the Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer (PBL), Kain-Fritsch (KF) cumulus convection, and Ferrier microphysics scheme, is used for the simulation of SuCS ‘Amphan’. Spatial distribution of wind, potential vorticity (PV), and vertical integrated moisture transport (VIMT) are analysed for the intensity and the behaviour of the characteristics of SuCS ‘Amphan’. Fifth generation of European center for medium-range weather forecast (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis of global climate (ERA5) resolves the atmosphere with 137 levels from the surface at the height of 80 km. ERA5 gives hourly estimations of a big number of atmospheric variables and covers the Earth on a 31 km grid. ERA5 observations are used for the validation of WRF-ARW model results. It is observed that spatial distribution of wind and vertical integrated moisture transport (VIMT), are well matched with the observations. The study is a prelude for sensitivity analysis and data assimilation using four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) technique.


Identification of potential zones for artificial recharge of groundwater using GIS overlay technique in granitic terrain of Bommala Ramaram and Bhudhaan Pochampally watersheds, Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Telangana state (India)

G. Praveen Kumar1 and Sreenu Kunsoth2*

1Central Groundwater Board, Ministry of Jal Shakti, Faridabad, Haryana- 121001, India
2Department of Geology, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500007, India


The study area encompasses an area of 657 Sq. km, along the eastern peri-urban boundary of Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. It is traversed by Musi River in the southern region. The area is underlain by granitic rocks of Archaean age, which have negligible to poor primary porosity while secondary structures like joints, fractures, shears and faults give rise to secondary porosity. The climate of the area is tropical to semiarid with normal annual rainfall of 730 mm. Excess pumping of groundwater for irrigation purposes, has imposed stress on the ground water resources in the northern parts of the study area, where deeper water levels are recorded up to 44 mbgl. Based on the post-monsoon water levels, the average unsaturated thickness estimated 3 mbgl is 5 m. which has a storage capacity of 60 MCM. Effective management of aquifer recharge is becoming an increasingly imperative in the context of water resource management strategies. In this study, Artificial recharge zones have been delineated through the integration of various thematic layers in the GIS environment. Weighted Index Overlay Analysis (WIOA) in spatial analysis is a simple and straight forward method for a combined analysis of multi-class layers. The study involves the mapping of potential zones and finding out various key frameworks influencing selection of suitable structures for artificial recharge of groundwater in granitic terrain using Geographical Information System (GIS) overlay technique. Based on the present study, the area is classified into three different categories of potential zones for artificial recharge namely, high favourable zone, moderate favourable zone and least favourable zone. The high favourable zone occupies 29% of the study area mostly in the northern part, while moderate favourable zones occupy 63% and low favourable zone, 8% occupying hilly areas in both the watersheds


Effect of land use and land cover changes on surface temperature: a case study from Chalisgaon (Jalgaon district, Maharashtra), India

Nilesh S. Patil1, Bhavesh D. Patil1*, V. J. Patil2, S. N. Patil1, A. K. Kadam1, Mayuri A. Patil1

1School of Environmental and Earth Sciences, Kavayitri Bahinabai Chaudhari North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon-425001, India
2Annasaheb G. D. Bendale Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Jalgaon, Maharashtra-425001, India


This study examines the relationship between Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) through a combination of ground-based, satellite-based, and re-analytical products. It focuses on the most recent changes in land surface temperature between 1991 and 2021 in the Chalisgaon Taluka of Maharashtra State, India. The results demonstrate that LULC changes have a significant impact on the climate through a range of mechanisms. There appears to be a connection between the changes in LULC spatial pattern with change in LST and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The error matrix is calculated for the assessment of the accuracy of classified land use land cover images. This analysis confirms that the most substantial alterations are related to changes in plant cover, as reflected by the alterations in LULC classes as well as in NDVI. The Built-up area covered 0.91% in 1991, but grew to 6.48% in 2021 compared to 1991. Between 1991 and 2021, the study region's vegetation and agricultural land area declined by 2.64%. It was discovered that there has been a quick transition from vegetation to built-up area. The mean LST ranges were amplified dramatically from 35.05? C to 46.22? C from 1991 to 2021, largely due to the growing build-up zone and decrease vegetation The study found that the growth of urban landscapes and associated rise in human activities, as well as shifting of agricultural patterns, LULC related changes to surface temperature, and regional climate feedback across this region, warrants further research. The finding of the present study will be useful for city planner and developers as baseline information for achieving the sustainable development of the area.


Variation of Surface Latent Heat Flux (SLHF) observed during high-magnitude earthquakes

Pooja Sharma1, Ananna Bardhan1*, Raj kumari2, D.K. Sharma1 and Ashok Kumar Sharma3

1Department of Sciences, Manav Rachna University, Faridabad-121004, Haryana, India
2Department of Physics, DAV Centenary College, Faridabad-121001, Haryana, India
3School of Physics, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra-182320, Jammu and Kashmir, India


Various precursory signatures are observed over the ocean-land-atmosphere due to seismic activities. Earthquakes create a lot of destruction to life and property. Therefore, understanding and monitoring various anomalies in geophysical parameters are required to understand the precursory signature for the early warning and the prediction of earthquakes. In the present work, the Surface Latent Heat Flux (SLHF) has been analysed for recent seven highmagnitude (M ? 6.0) earthquakes. For this purpose, data on SLHF has been retrieved from the NCEP website. The climatological analysis for seismic precursor identification (CAPRI) methodology was adopted to study the SLHF before the earthquakes. A significant anomalies change in the SLHF was observed. Maximum increase in SLHF was found to be ?20 days prior to the main earthquake events. The maximum and minimum anomalies in SLHF during all seven events were analysed. The variation in maximum and minimum anomaly is the least over the earthquakes events that occurred over land. This variation increases for the earthquakes that occurred over the ocean or near the vicinity of the ocean. The outgoing radiation trapped via accumulated water vapours results in increased heat over the surface of epicentres and nearby areas. This has contributed to the rise in surface latent heat flux before all the seven major earthquake events.


Impacts of tsunami on environment along the Indian coastlines: A comprehensive assessment

Babita Dani1, Vaibhava Srivastava1, A. P. Singh2 and R. Bhatla3,4*

1Department of Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.
2National Centre for Seismology, Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), New Delhi-110003, India.
3Department of Geophysics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.
4DST-Mahamana Centre of Excellence in Climate Change Research, Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development,BHU, Varanasi, India


An attempt is made to study the trends in research focusing mainly on the post-tsunami effects on the environment and their mitigation strategies thereof. These impacts are associated with both natural as well as anthropogenic aspects of the environment. Very few literatures are available online on the impacts on the physical or biological parameters of the environment over the Indian coast and there are very few baselines which are defined for environmental assessments. Assessment of the key impacts on the environment due to tsunami are found to be intrusion of salt water which may pose threats to the soil, vegetation, and salinization of freshwater resources. Solid waste and disaster debris (hazardous materials and toxic substances) are also the utmost critical environmental issue. There are many post-tsunami anthropogenic threats also, such as coastal pollution, excess resource use, erosion of beaches and changes in landscapes. The aim of the study is to bring out to the understanding of impacts on the environment that have not been reported sufficiently in the existing literature, hence it is needed to study specifically. Also trying to find out ways that might be useful for rehabilitation of coastal environmental habitats. To quantify such environmental impacts, there is a need for a more pronounced understanding of impacts of the tsunami on the coastal belts. A better understanding of such environmental impacts is very crucial in defining coastal environmental management and further mitigation plans.